Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS)

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Frequently Asked Questions About APA Style JARS

APA Style JARS is a collection of journal article reporting standards for quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research developed by APA. Originally published as articles in American Psychologist, APA Style JARS helps authors communicate important and relevant aspects of their research.

As shorthand, we refer to the quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods standards as JARS–Quant, JARS–Qual, and JARS–Mixed, respectively.

Following APA Style JARS should not significantly affect the length of a paper; information to be reported is routinely collected by many authors when they conduct research.

Also, not everything in APA Style JARS needs to go into a published article.

Although there is clearly tension between transparency in reporting and space limitations in a published article, editors may encourage authors to use supplemental materials for items that may be too detailed. APA Style JARS recommends supplemental materials be open to all those who read the journal article.

APA Style JARS should lighten the load for authors, reviewers, and editors as it provides a clear guide for identifying relevant information.

Authors, reviewers, and editors can use APA Style JARS as a tool to include and quickly point to important content within the research manuscript.

We have adapted the tables from the APA Style JARS articles into checklists to help with this. The checklists are clearly labeled with the type of research design presented and are ADA-compliant and free to use.

Because of the complexity of the JARS–Quant article, we have also included the JARS-Quant Decision Flowchart (PDF, 133KB) to help you determine which tables best suit your research.

APA, the APA Publications and Communications Board, and the JARS Working Groups do not endorse any particular standards referred to in the APA Style JARS articles.

Standards cited within the articles are examples of related and influential work.

Other standards were not mentioned in the APA Style JARS articles. APA does not oppose these other standards, so they may also be used.

APA Style JARS benefits anyone interacting with published research in psychology or behavioral science journals.

Students can use APA Style JARS to learn about how to conduct research and to determine which information is important to report.

Educators can use APA Style JARS as a teaching tool to communicate the importance of conducting high quality research and the need for transparency. As a part of APA Style, the standards should be included when teaching research methods.

APA Style JARS can be used at all stages of research.

Use APA Style JARS in the planning process to help you identify important information to consider capturing for specific designs.

Use APA Style JARS in the writing process to organize thoughts that will make a paper clear to all readers.

For reviewers, editors, and readers, APA Style JARS helps ensure the information communicated in your manuscript is clear and understandable.

APA Style JARS was developed specifically to focus on psychology and the behavioral and social sciences.

Authors reporting research that is outside the scope of APA Style JARS should refer to the EQUATOR Network and work with the editorial team of your journal.

If you didn't follow APA Style JARS with your previous submission, that's okay. The standards only apply to manuscripts released after publication of the APA Style JARS articles in January 2018.

Check with your journal's editorial team about their policies regarding using APA Style JARS.

Each journal's editorial team will determine how APA Style JARS will be applied to manuscripts going forward, so when considering publication, check the journal's submission guidelines for policies on adherence to APA Style JARS.

Even if a journal does not require APA Style JARS, following the standards will help improve the quality of your published work and make it more transparent. It will also be easier for editors, reviewers, and readers to evaluate your work.

In 2016, the APA Publications and Communications Board tasked two working groups with revising and expanding the JARS quantitative research reporting standards and creating a new set of qualitative and mixed methods research reporting standards.

Members of the working groups represent experts in the field of psychology (research and clinical), epidemiology, family and brain health, and education.

If you are interested in participating in a future iteration of APA Style JARS, please email the APA Publications and Communications Board staff liaison, Shontay Kincaid.

Please send any suggestions or recommendations for topics to cover in future APA Style JARS articles to APA Style Expert.