When do you include a retrieval date in a citation?

This page reflects guidance from the sixth edition of the Publication Manual.

For the most current guidelines, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) and our Style and Grammar Guidelines page for the seventh edition.

When a citation includes a digital object identifier (DOI), no further retrieval information is needed.

When a DOI is not available, and a URL is included, do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., wikis).

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