The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition is the official source for APA Style.

With millions of copies sold worldwide in multiple languages, it is the style manual of choice for writers, researchers, editors, students, and educators in the social and behavioral sciences, natural sciences, nursing, communications, education, business, engineering, and other fields.

Known for its authoritative, easy-to-use reference and citation system, the Publication Manual also offers guidance on choosing the headings, tables, figures, language, and tone that will result in powerful, concise, and elegant scholarly communication. It guides users through the scholarly writing process — from the ethics of authorship to reporting research through publication.

The seventh edition is an indispensable resource for students and professionals to achieve excellence in writing and make an impact with their work.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

List of Tables and Figures

Editorial Staff and Contributors



1. Scholarly Writing and Publishing Principles

Types of Articles and Papers

Ethical, Legal, and Professional Standards in Publishing

Ensuring the Accuracy of Scientific Findings

Protecting the Rights and Welfare of Research Participants and Subjects

Protecting Intellectual Property Rights

2. Paper Elements and Format

Required Elements

Paper Elements



Sample Papers

3. Journal Article Reporting Standards

Overview of Reporting Standards

Common Reporting Standards Across Research Designs

Reporting Standards for Quantitative Research

Reporting Standards for Qualitative Research

Reporting Standards for Mixed Methods Research

4. Writing Style and Grammar

Effective Scholarly Writing

Continuity and Flow

Conciseness and Clarity

Grammar and Usage



Sentence Construction

Strategies to Improve Your Writing

5. Bias-Free Language Guidelines

General Guidelines for Reducing Bias

Reducing Bias by Topic

6. Mechanics of Style







Statistical and Mathematical Copy

Presentation of Equations


7. Tables and Figures

General Guidelines for Tables and Figures


Sample Tables


Sample Figures

8. Works Credited in the Text

General Guidelines for Citation

Works Requiring Special Approaches to Citation

In-Text Citations

Paraphrases and Quotations

9. Reference List

Reference Categories

Principles of Reference List Entries

Reference Elements





Reference Variations

Reference List Format and Order

10. Reference Examples

Author Variations

Date Variations

Title Variations

Source Variations

Textual Works

Data Sets, Software, and Tests

Audiovisual Media

Online Media

11. Legal References

General Guidelines for Legal References

Legal Reference Examples

12. Publication Process

Preparing for Publication

Understanding the Editorial Publication Process

Manuscript Preparation

Copyright and Permission Guidelines

During and After Publication

Back Matter

Credits for Adapted Tables, Figures, and Papers



What's New in the 7th Edition?

Full Color
All formats are in full color, including the new tabbed spiral-bound version.

Easy to Navigate
Improved ease of navigation, with many additional numbered sections to help users quickly locate answers to their questions.

Best Practices
The Publication Manual (7th ed.) has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect best practices in scholarly writing and publishing.

New Student Resources
Resources for students on writing and formatting annotated bibliographies, response papers, and other paper types as well as guidelines on citing course materials.

Accessibility Guidelines
Guidelines that support accessibility for all users, including simplified reference, in-text citation, and heading formats as well as additional font options.

New-User Content
Dedicated chapter for new users of APA Style covering paper elements and format, including sample papers for both professional authors and student writers.

Journal Article Reporting Standards
New chapter on journal article reporting standards that includes updates to reporting standards for quantitative research and the first-ever qualitative and mixed methods reporting standards in APA Style.

Bias-Free Language Guidelines
New chapter on bias-free language guidelines for writing about people with respect and inclusivity in areas including age, disability, gender, participation in research, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and intersectionality.

100+ Reference Examples
More than 100 new reference examples covering periodicals, books, audiovisual media, social media, webpages and websites, and legal resources.

40+ Sample Tables and Figures
More than 40 new sample tables and figures.

Ethics Expanded
Expanded guidance on ethical writing and publishing practices, including how to ensure the appropriate level of citation, avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism, and navigate the publication process.