In title case, major words are capitalized, and most minor words are lowercase. In sentence case, most major and minor words are lowercase (proper nouns are an exception in that they are always capitalized).
- major words: Nouns, verbs (including linking verbs), adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, and all words of four letters or more are considered major words.
- minor words: Short (i.e., three letters or fewer) conjunctions, short prepositions, and all articles are considered minor words.
How to implement title case
In title case, capitalize the following words in a title or heading:
- the first word of the title or heading, even if it is a minor word such as “The” or “A”
- the first word of a subtitle
- the first word after a colon, em dash, or end punctuation in a heading
- major words, including the second part of hyphenated major words (e.g., “Self-Report,” not “Self-report”)
- words of four letters or more (e.g., “With,” “Between,” “From”)
Lowercase only minor words that are three letters or fewer in a title or heading (except the first word in a title or subtitle or the first word after a colon, em dash, or end punctuation in a heading):
- short conjunctions (e.g., “and,” “as,” “but,” “for,” “if,” “nor,” “or,” “so,” “yet”)
- articles (“a,” “an,” “the”)
- short prepositions (e.g., “as,” “at,” “by,” “for,” “in,” “of,” “off,” “on,” “per,” “to,” “up,” “via”)
When to use title case
Use title case for the following:
- titles of articles, books, reports, and other works appearing in text
In the book Train Your Mind for Peak Performance: A Science-Based Approach for Achieving Your Goals
In the article “Turning Frowns (and Smiles) Upside Down: A Multilevel Examination of Surface Acting Positive and Negative Emotions on Well-Being”
- titles of tests or measures, including subscales
Beck Depression Inventory–II
the Results section
- titles of periodicals (these are also italicized)
Journal of Latinx Psychology