When citing multiple works parenthetically, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons.

(Adams et al., 2019; Shumway & Shulman, 2015; Westinghouse, 2017)

Arrange two or more works by the same authors by year of publication.

  • Place citations with no date first.
  • Then, order works with dates in chronological order.
  • Place in-press citations last.

Give the authors’ surnames once; for each subsequent work, give only the date.

(Department of Veterans Affairs, n.d., 2017a, 2017b, 2019)

Zhou (n.d., 2000, 2016, in press)

Citing multiple works is covered in Section 8.12 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition

To highlight the work(s) most directly relevant to your point in a given sentence, place those citations first within parentheses in alphabetical order and then insert a semicolon and a phrase, such as “see also,” before the first of the remaining citations, which should also be in alphabetical order. This strategy allows authors to emphasize, for example, the most recent or most important research on a topic, which would not be reflected by alphabetical order alone.

(Sampson & Hughes, 2020; see also Augustine, 2017; Melara et al., 2018; Pérez, 2014)

If multiple sources are cited within the narrative of a sentence, they can appear in any order.

Suliman (2018), Gutiérrez (2012, 2017), and Medina and Reyes (2019) examined . . .

From the APA Style blog

Key takeaways from the Psi Chi webinar So You Need to Write a Literature Review

Key takeaways from the Psi Chi webinar So You Need to Write a Literature Review

This blog post describes key tasks in writing an effective literature review and provides strategies for approaching those tasks.

image of a laptop with a giant x covering the screen

How to cite a work with a nonrecoverable source

In most cases, nonrecoverable sources such as personal emails, nonarchived social media livestreams (or deleted and unarchived social media posts), classroom lectures, unrecorded webinars or presentations, and intranet sources should be cited only in the text as personal communications.

The “outdated sources” myth

The “outdated sources” myth

The “outdated sources” myth is that sources must have been published recently, such as the last 5 to 10 years. There is no timeliness requirement in APA Style.

Last updated: August 2022Date created: September 2019