To directly quote from written material that does not contain page numbers (e.g., webpages and websites, some ebooks), provide readers with another way of locating the quoted passage. Any of the following approaches is acceptable; use the approach that will best help readers find the quotation.
- Provide a heading or section name. It is okay to abbreviate a long or unwieldy heading or section name.
For people with osteoarthritis, “painful joints should be moved through a full range of motion every day to maintain flexibility and to slow deterioration of cartilage” (Gecht-Silver & Duncombe, 2015, Osteoarthritis section).
- Provide a paragraph number (count the paragraphs manually if they are not numbered).
People planning for retirement need more than just money—they also “need to stockpile their emotional reserves” to ensure adequate support from family and friends (Chamberlin, 2014, para. 1).
- Provide a heading or section name in combination with a paragraph number.
Music and language are intertwined in the brain such that “people who are better at rhythmic memory skills tend to excel at language skills as well” (DeAngelis, 2018, Musical Forays section, para. 4).
Do not include Kindle location numbers with in-text citations. Instead, provide the page number (which is available in many Kindle books, especially those based on print editions) or use the methods described on this page to create a page number alternative.
Note that the name of the section or other part of the work will not necessarily appear in the reference list entry for the work. For example, if you cite a particular section of a webpage or website in the text, the reference list entry should be for the page you used, not for only that section of the page.
To directly quote from an audiovisual work (e.g., audiobook, YouTube video, TED Talk, TV show), provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation in place of a page number.
People make “sweeping inferences and judgments from body language” (Cuddy, 2012, 2:12).
Works with canonically numbered sections
To directly quote from material with canonically numbered sections (e.g., religious or classical works), use the name of the book, chapter, verse, line, and/or canto instead of a page number.
The person vowed to “set me as a seal upon thine heart” (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Song of Solomon 8:6).
For plays, cite the act, scene, and line(s). In the following example, “1.3.36–37” refers to Act 1, Scene 3, Lines 36 and 37.
In Much Ado About Nothing, Don John said, “In the meantime / let me be that I am and seek not to alter me” (Shakespeare, 1623/1995, 1.3.36–37).