When quoting directly, always provide the author, year, and page number of the quotation (in both parenthetical and narrative in-text citations).

Follow these guidelines when providing a page number:

  • For a single page, use the abbreviation “p.” (e.g., p. 25, p. S41, p. e221).
  • For multiple pages, use the abbreviation “pp.” and separate the page range with an en dash (e.g., pp. 34–36).
  • If pages are discontinuous, use a comma between the page numbers (e.g., pp. 67, 72).

If the work does not have page numbers, provide another way for the reader to locate the quotation.

Direct quotations of material with page numbers are covered in Sections 8.25–8.27 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition