More than 100 reference examples and their corresponding in-text citations are presented in the Publication Manual. Examples of the most common kinds of works that writers cite are provided on this page for your ease of use. Note that print and electronic works have the same foundation; look for the type of work (e.g., journal article, webpage) to determine the format to follow.

Reference examples are covered in Chapter 10 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition

This page also contains supplemental reference examples that are mentioned but not presented in the Publication Manual due to space considerations.

Common Reference Examples

Journal Article

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185

Jerrentrup, A., Mueller, T., Glowalla, U., Herder, M., Henrichs, N., Neubauer, A., & Schaefer, J. R. (2018). Teaching medicine with the help of “Dr. House”. PLoS ONE, 13(3), Article e0193972. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193972

  • Parenthetical citations: (Grady et al., 2019; Jerrentrup et al., 2018)
  • Narrative citations: Grady et al. (2019) and Jerrentrup et al. (2018)
  • If a journal article has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference.
  • If the journal article does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range (for an explanation of why, see the database information page). The reference in this case is the same as for a print journal article.
  • Do not include database information in the reference unless the journal article comes from a database that publishes original, proprietary content, such as UpToDate (see an example on the database information page).
  • If the journal article does not have a DOI but does have a URL that will resolve for readers (e.g., it is from an online journal that is not part of a database), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.
  • If the journal article has an article number instead of a page range, include the article number instead of the page range (as shown in the Jerrentrup et al. example).

Magazine Article

Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of human evolution. Science, 365(6457), 981–982. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay3550

Schulman, M. (2019, September 9). Superfans: A love story. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/09/16/superfans-a-love-story

  • Parenthetical citations: (Schaefer & Shapiro, 2019; Schulman, 2019)
  • Narrative citations: Schaefer and Shapiro (2019) and Schulman (2019)
  • If a magazine article has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference.
  • If the magazine article does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range. Do not include database information in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print magazine article.
  • If the magazine article does not have a DOI but does have a URL that will resolve for readers (e.g., it is from an online magazine that is not part of a database), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.
  • If the magazine article does not have volume, issue, and/or page numbers (e.g., because it is from an online magazine), omit the missing elements from the reference (as in the Schulman example).

Newspaper Article

Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html

  • Parenthetical citation: (Carey, 2019)
  • Narrative citation: Carey (2019)
  • If the newspaper article is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range. Do not include database information in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print newspaper article.
  • If the newspaper article has a URL that will resolve for readers (e.g., it is from an online newspaper), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.
  • If the newspaper article does not have volume, issue, and/or page numbers (e.g., because it is from an online newspaper), omit the missing elements from the reference, as shown in the example.
  • If the article is from a news website (e.g., CNN, HuffPost)—one that does not have an associated daily or weekly newspaper—use the format for a webpage on a website instead.

Whole Book

Rabinowitz, F. E. (2019). Deepening group psychotherapy with men: Stories and insights for the journey. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000132-000

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.

  • Parenthetical citations: (Rabinowitz, 2019; Sapolsky, 2017)
  • Narrative citations: Rabinowitz (2019) and Sapolsky (2017)
  • If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • Do not include the publisher location.
  • If the book does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research database, end the book reference after the publisher name. Do not include database information in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print book.

Edited Book Chapter

Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000120-016

  • Parenthetical citation: (Aron et al., 2019)
  • Narrative citation: Aron et al. (2019)
  • If the edited book chapter includes a DOI, include the chapter DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • Do not include the publisher location.
  • If the edited book chapter does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research database, end the edited book chapter reference after the publisher name. Do not include database information in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print edited book chapter.
  • Do not create references for chapters of authored books. Instead, write a reference for the whole book and cite the chapter in the text if desired (e.g., Kumar, 2017, Chapter 2).

Dictionary Entry

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Culture. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved September 9, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture

  • Parenthetical citation: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)
  • Narrative citation: Merriam-Webster (n.d.)
  • Because entries in Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary are updated over time and are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference.
  • Merriam-Webster is both the author and the publisher, so the name appears in the author element only to avoid repetition.
  • To quote a dictionary definition, view the pages on quotations and how to quote works without page numbers for guidance. Additionally, here is an example: 
    • Culture refers to the “customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group” (Merriam-Webster, n.d., Definition 1a).

Government Report

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf

  • Parenthetical citation: (National Cancer Institute, 2019)
  • Narrative citation: National Cancer Institute (2019)
  • The specific agency responsible for the report appears as the author. The names of parent agencies not present in the group author name appear in the source element as the publisher. This creates concise in-text citations and complete reference list entries.

YouTube Video

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs

  • Parenthetical citation: (Harvard University, 2019)
  • Narrative citation: Harvard University (2019)
  • Use the name of the account that uploaded the video as the author.
  • If the account did not actually create the work, explain this in the text if it is important for readers to know. However, if that would mean citing a source that appears unauthoritative, you might also look for the author’s YouTube channel, official website, or other social media to see whether the same video is available elsewhere.

Tweet

APA Databases [@APA_Databases]. (2019, September 5). Help students avoid plagiarismWeb emoji of crossing hands and researchers navigate the publication process. More details available in the 7th edition @APA_Style table [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/APA_Databases/status/1169644365452578823

Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it’s difficult for researchers to diagnose #Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/1170305718425137152

  • Parenthetical citations: (APA Databases, 2019; Gates, 2019)
  • Narrative citations: APA Databases (2019) and Gates (2019)
  • Present the name of the individual or group author the same as you would for any other reference. Then provide the Twitter handle (beginning with the @ sign) in square brackets, followed by a period.
  • Provide the first 20 words of the tweet as the title. Count a URL, a hashtag, or an emoji as one word each, and include them in the reference if they fall within the first 20 words.
  • If the tweet includes an image, a video, a poll, or a thumbnail image with a link, indicate that in brackets after the title: [Image attached], [Video attached], [Thumbnail with link attached].
  • The same format used for Twitter is also used for Instagram.  

Facebook Post

News From Science. (2019, June 21). Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system—and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/photos/a.117532185107/10156268057260108/?type=3&theater

  • Parenthetical citation: (News From Science, 2019)
  • Narrative citation: News From Science (2019)
  • Provide the first 20 words of the Facebook post as the title. Count a URL or other link, a hashtag, or an emoji as one word each, and include them in the reference if they fall within the first 20 words. 
  • If a status update includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, or content from another Facebook post (such as when sharing a link), indicate that in square brackets.

Webpage on a Website

Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain. OER Commons. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from https://www.oercommons.org/authoring/53029-nursing-clinical-brain/view

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, July). Anxiety disorders. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml

Woodyatt, A. (2019, September 10). Daytime naps once or twice a week may be linked to a healthy heart, researchers say. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/09/10/health/nap-heart-health-wellness-intl-scli/index.html

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death

  • Parenthetical citations: (Fagan, 2019; National Institute of Mental Health, 2019; Woodyatt, 2019; World Health Organization, 2018)
  • Narrative citations: Fagan (2019), National Institute of Mental Health (2019), Woodyatt (2019), and World Health Organization (2018)
  • Provide as specific a date as is available on the webpage. This might be a year only; a year and month; or a year, month, and day.
  • Italicize the title of a webpage.
  • When the author of the webpage and the publisher of the website are the same, omit the publisher name to avoid repetition (as in the World Health Organization example).
  • When contents of a page are meant to be updated over time but are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference (as in the Fagan example).
  • Use the webpage on a website format for articles from news websites such as CNN and HuffPost (these sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers). Use the newspaper article category for articles from newspaper websites such as The New York Times or The Washington Post.
  • Create a reference to an Online Educational Research (OER) Commons page only when the materials are available for download directly (i.e., the materials are on the page and/or can be downloaded as PDFs or other files). When the “View Resource” button of an OER instead directs you to another website, create a reference to the specific webpage on that website where the materials can be retrieved.
  • Do not create a reference or in-text citation for a whole website. To mention a website in general, and not any particular information on that site, provide the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses. For example, you might mention that you used a website to create a survey.

We created our survey using Qualtrics (https://www.qualtrics.com).

Supplemental Reference Examples

The following supplemental example references are mentioned in the Publication Manual:

Guidance for and examples of archival documents and collections are also available separately. 

Retracted Journal or Magazine Article

Joly, J. F., Stapel, D. A., & Lindenberg, S. M. (2008). Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(8), 1047–1056. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167208318401 (Retraction published 2012, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38[10], 1378)

Ricaurte, G. A., Yuan, J., Hatzidimitriou, G., Cord, B. J., & McCann, U.D. (2002, September 27). Severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a common recreational dose regimen of MDMA. Science, 297(5590), 2260–2263. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1074501 (Retraction published September 12, 2003, Science, 301[5639], 1454, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.301.5639.1479b)

  • Parenthetical citations: (Joly et al., 2008; Ricaurte et al., 2002)
  • Narrative citations: Joly et al. (2008) and Ricaurte et al. (2002)

Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.).

American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.).

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.).

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.).

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

  • Parenthetical citations: (American Psychiatric Association, 1980, 1987, 1994, 2000, 2013)
  • Narrative citations: American Psychiatric Association (1980, 1987, 1994, 2000, 2013)
  • Because the author and the publisher are the same, “American Psychiatric Association” is written only in the author element.

Edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)

World Health Organization. (2016). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (10th ed.). https://icd.who.int/browse10/2016/en

World Health Organization. (2019). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (11th ed.). https://icd.who.int/

  • Parenthetical citations: (World Health Organization, 2016, 2019)
  • Narrative citations: World Health Organization (2016, 2019)
  • Because the author and the publisher are the same, “World Health Organization” is written only in the author element.

Religious Work

The Bhagavad Gita (E. Easwaran, Trans.; 2nd ed.). (2007). The Blue Mountain Center of Meditation.

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)

  • Parenthetical citation: (The Bhagavad Gita, 2007; King James Bible, 2017)
  • Narrative citation: The Bhagavad Gita (2007) and King James Bible (2017)
  • Religious works are usually treated as having no author.
  • The year of original publication of a religious work may be unknown or in dispute and is not included in the reference in those cases. However, versions of religious works such as the Bible may be republished; these republished dates are included in the reference.
  • Cite a chapter or verse in the text using canonical numbering rather than page numbers:
    • The person vowed to “set me as a seal upon thine heart” (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Song of Solomon 8:6).

Annotated Religious Work

Kaiser, W. C., Jr., & Garrett, D. (Eds.). (2006). NIV archeological study bible: An illustrated walk through biblical history and culture. Zondervan.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Kaiser & Garrett, 2006)
  • Narrative citation: Kaiser and Garrett (2006)
  • When a classical work (including a religious work) has been annotated by an editor, the editor appears in the author position of the reference.
  • Cite a chapter or verse of the religious work in the text using canonical numbering rather than page numbers: (Kaiser & Garrett, 2006, Genesis 1:20)
  • Cite a portion of the annotated work created by its authors or editors using page numbers from the work: (Kaiser & Garrett, 2006, footnote to Genesis 1:12, p. 4)