This page contains reference examples for the following common diagnostic manuals:

  1. Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
  2. Edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)
  3. Entry in the DSM
  4. Entry in the ICD

References for diagnostic manuals follow the format for books, and references for entries in diagnostic manuals follow the format for edited book chapters.

1. Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.).

American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.).

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.).

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.).

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

 

  • Parenthetical citations: (American Psychiatric Association, 1980, 1987, 1994, 2000, 2013)
  • Narrative citations: American Psychiatric Association (1980, 1987, 1994, 2000, 2013)
  • Because the author and the publisher are the same, “American Psychiatric Association” is written only in the author element.
  • Provide a DOI when the diagnostic manual has one.
  • For editions of the DSM without DOIs, the reference ends after the title because the author and publisher are the same and thus the publisher is omitted to avoid repetition.

2. Edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)

World Health Organization. (2016). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (10th ed.). https://icd.who.int/browse10/2016/en

World Health Organization. (2019). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (11th ed.). https://icd.who.int/

 

  • Parenthetical citations: (World Health Organization, 2016, 2019)
  • Narrative citations: World Health Organization (2016, 2019)
  • Because the author and the publisher are the same, “World Health Organization” is written only in the author element to avoid repetition.
  • Because the ICD is available online and does not have a DOI, provide a URL.

3. Entry in the DSM

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Anxiety disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm05

 

  • Parenthetical citation: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
  • Narrative citation: American Psychiatric Association (2013)

4. Entry in the ICD

World Health Organization. (2019). 2A85.5 Mantle cell lymphoma. In International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (11th ed.). https://icd.who.int/browse11/l-m/en#/http://id.who.int/icd/entity/1804127841

 

  • Parenthetical citation: (World Health Organization, 2019)
  • Narrative citation: World Health Organization (2019)

References to diagnostic manuals and entries in diagnostic manuals are covered in Sections 10.2 and 10.3, respectively, of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition