This page contains reference examples for Twitter, including the following:
Cite a livestream (e.g., Twitter Live) that is not archived by its hosting platform and cannot be retrieved by any other means (i.e., recorded and made available online via another hosting site) as a personal communication.
APA Databases [@APA_Databases]. (2020, September 2). We have curated a collection of journal articles from APA PsycArticles on #COVID19. View: https://bit.ly/2QrWj76 for recent coverage [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/APA_Databases/status/1301175576703664128
CDC [@CDCgov]. (2020, June 11). Scientists do not know if having antibodies to the virus that causes #COVID19 can protect someone from getting infected again [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/CDCgov/status/1271180413134876672
Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it’s difficult for researchers to diagnose #Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/1170305718425137152
Prevention Institute [@preventioninst]. (2020, September 24). If you want to talk #health, you have to talk #racialjustice [Video attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/preventioninst/status/1309211009039687680
Stella, T. [@studiotstella]. (2019, November 16). My poster for “The Maltese Falcon” - 1941 by #JohnHuston #DashiellHammett #HumphreyBogart #MaryAstor #PeterLorre #SydneyGreenstreet #Noirvember [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/studiotstella/status/1195804569131003909
- Parenthetical citations: (APA Databases, 2020; CDC, 2020; Gates, 2019; Prevention Institute, 2020; Stella, 2019)
- Narrative citations: APA Databases (2020), CDC (2020), Gates (2019), Prevention Institute (2020), and Stella (2019)
- Present the name of the individual or group author the same as you would for any other reference. Then provide the Twitter handle (beginning with the @ sign) in square brackets, followed by a period.
- In the case of a group identified by an abbreviation (as with the CDC example), use the group name as shown on the work, to aid in retrieval.
- Provide the specific date of the post.
- Provide the first 20 words of the tweet as the title, in italics. Count a URL, a hashtag, or an emoji as one word each, and include them in the reference if they fall within the first 20 words. Do not italicize emojis.
- If the tweet includes an image, a video, a poll, or a thumbnail image with a link, indicate that in brackets after the title: [Image attached], [Video attached], [Thumbnail with link attached].
- Include the description “[Tweet]” in square brackets after the title.
- Credit Twitter as the site name in the source element and then provide the URL of the tweet.
- The format used for Twitter is also used for Instagram and TikTok.
APA Style [@APA_Style]. (2019, December 17). What’s new in the #7thEdition of #APAStyle [Moment]. Twitter. Retrieved January 19, 2020, from https://twitter.com/i/moments/1181218317408837633
DeGeneres, E. [@TheEllenShow]. (2018, March 8). Incredible women on The Ellen Show [Moment]. Twitter. Retrieved January 17, 2020, from https://twitter.com/i/moments/971819538411999232
- Parenthetical citations: (APA Style, 2019; DeGeneres, 2018)
- Narrative citations: APA Style (2019) and DeGeneres (2018)
- A Twitter moment is a curated set of stories from Twitter.
- The moment is subject to change (users can add or remove tweets from the moment), even though the date shown for the moment’s page remains static, so the retrieval date is always needed in the reference.
APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved January 15, 2020, from https://twitter.com/APA_Style
Jordan, M. B. [@michaelb4jordan]. (n.d.). Tweets & replies [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from https://twitter.com/michaelb4jordan/with_replies
- Parenthetical citations: (APA Style, n.d.; Jordan, n.d.)
- Narrative citations: APA Style (n.d.) and Jordan (n.d.)
- Twitter profiles begin on the “Tweets” tab by default. If you want to cite one of the other tabs (e.g., “Tweets & Replies,” “Media,” “Likes”), use the name of that tab rather than “Tweets” in the title element of the reference.
- Include the notation “[Twitter profile]” in square brackets.
- Provide a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time and is not archived.
- Provide the URL of the page.