This page contains reference examples for YouTube, including the following:
The same format can be used for other sites that host user-generated videos, such as Vimeo.
Cite a livestream (e.g., YouTube live) that is not archived by its hosting platform and cannot be retrieved by any other means (i.e., recorded and made available online via another hosting site) as a personal communication.
Asian Boss. (2020, June 5). World’s leading vaccine expert fact-checks COVID-19 vaccine conspiracy: Stay curious #22 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQdLDMLrYIA
Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs
- Parenthetical citations: (Asian Boss, 2020; Harvard University, 2019)
- Narrative citations: Asian Boss (2020) and Harvard University (2019)
- Use the name of the account that uploaded the video as the author.
- If the account did not actually create the work, explain this in the text if it is important for readers to know. However, if that would mean citing a source that appears unauthoritative, you might also look for the author’s YouTube channel, official website, or other social media to see whether the same video is available elsewhere.
- To cite the words of individuals featured in a video, name or describe the individual(s) in your sentence in the text and then provide a parenthetical citation for the video. For example, the Asian Boss video is an interview with the director general of the International Vaccine Institute; you should provide details about who spoke and what they said in the text of the sentence and then cite the video using the parenthetical citation shown.
- Provide the specific date on which the video was uploaded.
- Italicize the title of the video.
- Include the description “[Video]” in square brackets after the title.
- Provide the site name (YouTube) and URL of the video.
APA Publishing Training. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/user/PsycINFO/
Walker, A. (n.d.). Playlists [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/user/DjWalkzz/playlists
- Parenthetical citations: (APA Publishing Training, n.d.; Walker, n.d.)
- Narrative citations: APA Publishing Training (n.d.) and Walker (n.d.)
- YouTube channel pages begin on the “Home” tab by default. If you want to cite one of the other tabs (e.g., “Videos,” “Playlists”), use the name of that tab rather than “Home” in the title element of the reference (as in the Walker example).
- Italicize the title of the channel.
- Include the description “[YouTube channel]” in square brackets after the title.
- Provide a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time and is not archived.